Surface of the first chapter asepsis pathogenic microorganisms exist widely in the air, the ground, walls and articles (including medical devices) and patient or staff of the surface, can be through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin and mucous membrane, or through blood transfusion, infusion, injection and operation and other ways to enter human body and cause infection. In the field of surgery, the microbes into the wound by direct contact, droplet and the air, cause infection. Aseptic technique is a kind of preventive measures to be taken against the infection sources, the sterilization, antisepsis and certain rules of operation and management system. Aseptic principles has been infiltrated into hospital management, medical staff establish the concept of sterile sterile, implement principle, try to avoid or reduce the incidence of surgical infection, the use of antibiotics is not replaced by. Sterilization refers to kill all living organisms, and disinfection to kill pathogenic microorganisms and other harmful microorganisms, does not require removal or kill all microorganisms. Sterilization is generally refers to the pre using physical methods, such as high temperature, ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation, thoroughly eliminate the contact with the operation area or wound items all microorganisms attached to the high temperature, the most common application. Operation apparatus and application of items such as clothes, towels, gauze operation operation and pots, cans are available in high temperature sterilization. Some chemicals such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, epoxy ethane, type B propiolactone and peracetic acid, can kill all the microorganisms, it can also be used in the sterilization method. The sterilizing agent all should be excellent disinfectant. Ionizing radiation is mainly used in the sterilization of antibiotics, hormones, steroids, vitamins and other drugs and plastic syringe and suture. Ultraviolet rays can kill suspended in the air, the water and attached to the surface of microorganism, but it can't shot people food and clothing, clothing and other textile fabrics, it is generally only used for disinfection of indoor air. Sterilization is the concept of absolute, but actually to be completely sterile is difficult. Disinfection method also called antisepsis, most refers to the application of chemical methods to remove or kill surgical supplies, skin and mucosa and superficial body harmful microorganisms. Antisepsis only ask will be harmful to reduce the number of microorganisms to harmless levels, and does not require that all the killing harmful microorganisms. Antibacterial assay the types of chemical preparation, disinfection medicine ideal should be able to kill bacteria, bacillus, fungi all can cause the microbial infection and does not damage the normal tissue. We can choose different drugs according to the nature to sterilizer, articles, to take the role of a drug and reduce its adverse reactions.
The first chapter asepsis section operation equipment, goods, dressing sterilization and disinfection second day operation staff and patients operation area in preparation for the third day operation aseptic principles in section fourth of chapter second operation room management of surgical patients with humoral disorders section section second body fluid metabolism disorder of acid-base balance disorder third section third surgical shock the first section outlines the second shock treatment for third day hypovolemic shock fourth septic shock in the fourth chapter of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome section section second acute renal failure in third acute respiratory distress syndrome in fourth day stress ulcer in fifth acute liver function failure in fifth chapter intensive care and recovery section intensive care second cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation peri operation period of treatment sixth chapter first section preoperative preparation second day postoperative third day postoperative complications in the seventh chapter surgical patients nutrition metabolism section 1 basic human nutrition and metabolism of second day hunger, posttraumatic metabolic changes in section third Parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition in section fifth, section fourth of nutrition support in critically ill patients in the clinical application of eighth surgical infection section section second shallow tissue pyogenic infection third hand acute suppurative infection fourth systemic infection section fifth anaerobic bacteria infection in sixth day surgical antibiotic application principles chapter ninth the first section summarizes second common tumor of superficial tumor and tumor of tenth chapter neck disease section anatomy and physiology section second of tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes third cervical mass in fourth day of neck trauma treatment in Chapter eleventh, thyroid and parathyroid diseases section anatomy and physiology second simple goiter third hyperthyroidism thyroid inflammation in fourth quarter fifth the sixth section section of thyroid tumor hyperparathyroidism twelfth chapter breast disease section anatomy and physiology section second nipple, breast deformity of multi section third breast inflammation fourth breast cystic hyperplasia of breast tumor in thirteenth chapter fifth section of abdominal external hernia and abdominal wall diseases section Hernia inguinal hernia summary section second section third incisional hernia of abdominal wall hernia in section fourth section fifth other abdominal surgical diseases of acute abdomen acute abdomen fourteenth chapter first festival second festival mechanism of diagnosis of acute abdomen third differential diagnosis of acute abdomen fourth day treatment principle of acute abdomen in Chapter fifteenth, abdominal injury section second section third section of liver injury of abdominal wall injury the fourth section of extrahepatic bile duct injury in fifth day sixth day seventh spleen injury of gastric injury section of duodenum injury in eighth sections of pancreatic trauma in ninth day of intestinal and mesenteric injury tenth colon injury in eleventh day of anorectal injury twelfth retroperitoneal hematoma, omental and mesenteric sixteenth chapter peritoneal disease section anatomy and physiology section second section third tuberculous peritonitis abdominal Mo Yan fourth abdominal abscess fifth primary peritoneal cancer sixth omental disease seventh mesenteric diseases in seventeenth chapter gastroduodenal diseases section anatomy and physiology second gastric and duodenal ulcer third day stress ulcer in fourth Section fifth gastric cancer day acute gastric dilatation volvulus of stomach in section seventh, section sixth, section eighth of duodenal tuberculosis gastric duodenal diverticulum ninth duodenal fistula in tenth day of superior mesenteric artery syndrome in eleventh gastric mucosa prolapse twelfth Ben door achalasia thirteenth congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Fourteenth section, Fifteenth section of gastroptosis stomach, duodenum eyewinker eighteenth chapter 1 small intestinal diseases congenital deformity of second intestinal obstruction third mesenteric arterial occlusive disease in fourth acute hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis of small intestine diverticular disease section fifth section sixth intestinal pneumatosis seventh blind loop syndrome eighth short bowel syndrome in nineteenth chapter colonic disease first congenital megacolon in section second colonic volvulus third colonic diverticulum fourth colonic amebiasis fifth section E. in sixth day of inflammatory bowel disease seventh colon polyps eighth familial adenomatous polyposis ninth class tenth section of chapter twentieth cancer of colon cancer diseases of appendix section anatomy and physiology The second festival of acute appendicitis in third day chronic appendicitis fourth appendectomy fifth special cases of the acute appendicitis in sixth tumors of the appendix twenty-first chapter anorectal diseases section anatomy and physiology second anus and anus congenital diseases third anorectal examination method of section fourth hemorrhoids in fifth day of anorectal abscess sixth day Seventh Festival anal fissure anal fistula the eighth section rectal prolapse in ninth day anorectal injury in tenth colorectal cancer liver disease twenty-second chapter first liver anatomy and physiology second liver abscess in third benign liver tumors fourth malignant liver tumors fifth hepatic cyst sixth hepatic hydatid disease of liver transplantation in twenty-third chapter seventh section of portal hypertension in the first sectionPortal hypertension second Budd Chiari syndrome in twenty-fourth chapter first diagnosis of biliary tract diseases of biliary tract disease in second gallbladder stone third acute cholecystitis in fourth day of primary sclerosing cholangitis in fifth day of intrahepatic bile duct stone sixth biliary tract oyster disease section seventh of acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis biliary tumor in twenty-fifth chapter eighth section the first day of pancreatic disease of acute pancreatitis in second day chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst in fourth day third day fifth day of pancreatic carcinoma of pancreatic endocrine tumors sixth multiple endocrine syndrome in seventh section, eighth section of periampullary carcinoma of pancreas transplantation in Chapter twenty-sixth, diseases of the spleen section section second splenic diseases third splenectomy indications and curative effect of fourth the twenty-seventh chapter section of splenectomy in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage and processing section second section of upper digestive tract hemorrhage clinical manifestations of third section of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the fourth section of upper digestive tract hemorrhage treatment principle under section fifth of the digestive tract hemorrhage the clinical manifestations of Sixth Section of lower gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the seventh section of lower digestive tract hemorrhage treatment principle of the twenty-eighth chapter of peripheral artery disease first vascular injury in second sections of arteriovenous fistula in third section, fourth section of thromboangiitis obliterans arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower limbs in fifth sections of extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease in section sixth, section seventh of peripheral artery embolism in section eighth Raynaud syndrome ninth abdominal aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection in twenty-ninth chapter tenth section of peripheral venous diseases section anatomy and physiology second day simple varicose veins of lower extremity section third of primary deep venous insufficiency of lower limb deep venous thrombosis in fifth fourth day festival lymphedema in thirtieth chapter the application of laparoscopic surgery in general the first section laparoscopic history section second laparoscopic surgery operation space and vision of the forming method in section third section fourth basic techniques of laparoscopic surgery in laparoscopic operation complication of fifth minimally invasive surgery in general surgery for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of typical cases @##@ color This book mainly includes the General Department of general surgery, Department of general surgery diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of each theory and typical cases of the three part, mainly introduces the overview of all kinds of diseases, Department of general surgery diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and the latest progress and prospect. In the theory of the Department of general surgery, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases as the flow diagram is given, enable the reader to stick out a mile. This book aimed at young physicians and Department of general surgery in writing, in the form of a flowchart representation, concise, easy to read and understand. Recent progress and Prospect of the section provides a good platform for them to understand and master the new progress, new technology in the field of Department of general surgery. The book is characterized by starting from the clinical practicability, not only pay attention to the cultivation of clinical thinking ability, but also pay close attention to the medical trends and latest technology. This book for Department of general surgery, a senior resident and attending physicians used in hospitals at all levels.
"The Department of general surgery disease diagnosis process and treatment strategies for Department of general surgery" senior resident and attending physicians used in hospitals at all levels.
Medical Science @ 2017