Clinical epidemiology

Date of publication:2010-8   Press: Central South University press   Author:Liu Aizhong, Huang Minzhu.   Pages:370   Words:590000  
Preface

With the development of modern medicine and evidence-based medicine and clinical epidemiology of rapid development, more and more researchers and clinicians in the attention, its principle and method in the field of clinical medicine is widely used and has been developing rapidly. A graduate textbook "clinical epidemiology" first edition has been used for 6 years, in order to adapt to the development and research of clinical epidemiology of graduate education, it is necessary to revised edition of the textbook. Based on the above reasons, combined with the author's years of teaching and scientific research practice and students often encounter problems, the version from the form and content of the larger changes, avoid and undergraduate clinical epidemiology epidemiology textbook and teaching content too much repetition. This textbook has been revised and supplemented from the whole. Concrete has the following 5 characteristics: ① the chapter number increased 3 chapter, from the first 15 chapter extends into 18 chapters; Chapter II increased 4 new content: "epidemiological measurement", "health related quality of life in the determination and evaluation", "medical literature reading, evaluation and application" and "the clinical study of commonly used comprehensive evaluation method; the" Cancel "evidence-based medicine", "the burden of disease", "drug economics evaluation", the 3 chapter, the content is reflected in the relevant chapters. Each chapter; increase the actual case, and penetrate into the contents of each chapter; making full of original content: the first edition of the third chapter "epidemiological methods in clinical research" into "descriptive", "analysis of '' and" clinical trials "3 chapter"; research and evaluation of diagnostic test "to" diagnostic test and screening test ";" control "bias in clinical study to" error and its control "common clinical study;" application "statistical method in the clinical research into" typical errors in clinical research". The second edition of the book content according to the design, measurement and evaluation of ideas and reference to domestic and foreign outstanding teaching schedule order. The specific arrangements for the introduction and design (1, Chapter 2), measurement (3, Chapter 4), clinical epidemiology research method commonly used (5, 6, 7 chapters), (8, 9, 10 assessment, the 11 chapter), other research methods (12, 13, 14 chapter), quality control (15, 16 chapter), document understanding and writing (17, Chapter 18). The materials from the graduate needs graduate research and clinical medicine of writing, learn to resolve problems related to clinical medical research, clinical medical postgraduate students and clinicians can better grasp and use clinical epidemiology method, to solve practical problems in graduation thesis and other clinical medical research. Therefore, the teaching material can be used for clinical medical postgraduates, seven year and eight year students of clinical epidemiological study materials, also can be used as clinical medicine, oral medicine, mental health, medical laboratory, nursing, pharmacy and preventive medicine students elective course books, also can be used as clinicians and medical researchers. Reference books or continuing medical education materials. The material origin 19 professors in epidemiology from national 8 well-known colleges and universities and the Ottawa University in Canada and the clinical medical experts to cooperate, carefully prepared. The public health school of Central South University and Central South University press under the leadership of the concern and support in the preparation process, the Central South University School of Public Health Department of epidemiology and health statistics professor Sun Zhenqiu, Professor Tan Hongzhuan to write the book and gave the guidance suggestion; Deng Jinglao division of the teaching secretary, did a lot of work. This, together with my heartfelt thanks. The principles and methods of clinical epidemiology is still in rapid development, more and more subjects and involved. The editor of the level is limited, the book errors and defects can hardly be avoided, welcome readers and experts. @##@The copyright page: illustration: (a) the concept and classification of the random error is the error random change of one class is not constant, the. Can be divided into two types: random error of measurement and sampling errors. For example, in the course of the study, under the same conditions on the same subjects repeated measurement, the measurement results every time is not necessarily identical, random change in each measurement result is generated by the random measurement error. Another common error is random sampling error. In the process of scientific research practice, most research is through the sample information to infer the overall characteristics, methods of sampling methods adopted. Because of individual differences exist, the sampling of sampling error is unavoidable, but the study found that the distribution of sampling error has certain rules, can be estimated and evaluated using statistical method. Therefore, in the course of practical research, the distribution characteristics of researchers use sampling error, using statistical methods to deal with the problem in the study of random error, as much as possible so that the authenticity and reliability of the results is better. (two) treatment of random measurement error can be used repeatedly measuring method for average control. Control for sampling error, to handle the researchers usually adopts the method of hypothesis testing and interval estimation. The traditional hypothesis testing approach is to use P value to estimate the likelihood of false positive error occurred in the study of size. Interval estimation method is the use of confidence intervals to show the effect of random errors. Often with 95% confidence intervals to represent the possible range of 95% of the true value. For example, research on the risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease death, in addition to report their effect relation intensity gamma value (point estimate), confidence interval also reported the value of 95%. Value basis also report estimated interval is the reason of point estimates is a numerical singular in the effects of point estimation, the values may contain random errors of the inside. Researchers often by calculating the point estimation and confidence interval of the way to make the reader not only know the contact strength between factors and the study of disease in size, and knowing that the fluctuation range of such a connection strength. This is one of the most commonly used method for estimation of random error. Confidence interval parameters not only can be used for statistical inference, and it can reflect the results of the statistical significance and practical significance of size. For example, to evaluate the effect of two different treatment methods have no difference, confidence intervals can be computed respectively effect index, if the two confidence interval overlaps with no differences between the two treatment effect, there was statistical significance without overlapping both difference. The width of confidence interval can also reflect the precision of study, in the same study, narrower confidence intervals, the higher the accuracy of.
Summary

This textbook in summing up our years of clinical epidemiology teaching experience, excellent teaching materials at home and abroad the contents, absorbing the latest progress and research of this subject is to compile. The main contents include the design, measurement and evaluation of clinical epidemiology (the second chapter to the seventh chapter), the decision analysis is expanded from the depth and breadth of (the eighth chapter), evidence-based medicine (Chapter ninth), the burden of disease (the tenth chapter), clinical economic evaluation (Chapter eleventh), drug economics evaluation (Chapter twelfth). The relevant content, in order to meet the needs of clinical research and development. Finally, the book also describes the quality control in clinical study (Chapter thirteenth), use of statistical methods in clinical scientific research (Chapter fourteenth) and writing medical paper how to correct specification and review (Chapter fifteenth). This textbook with examples to explain, is practical and operational characteristics of strong, easy to understand and further application.
Catalogue of books

The first chapter is introduction (Introduction) mainly studies the category
definition and development history of
second day clinical epidemiological study on common design types
third day clinical epidemiology
second chapter clinical epidemiological study design (Clinical Epidemiologicat Research
Design)
the first section design of clinical epidemiological study of
second basic steps clinical epidemiological study topics and writing.
third day clinical epidemiological study design and reporting
fourth day clinical epidemiology research questionnaire design
third chapter epidemiological measurement (Epidemiological Measurement) measurements of
fourth chapter diagnostic test and screening test to measure
fourth
the first effect burden day exposure measurement
second disease measuring
third of the disease (Diagnostic Test and Screening Test) to improve the diagnosis efficiency test method
fifth chapter descriptive research design of
third diagnostic test for
the first the basic concepts of
second diagnostic test evaluation in section fourth (
Descriptive Study
1) Day case reports and case analysis of
second prevalence of
third longitudinal study of
sixth chapter analysis (Analytic Study) a comparative study of
third section multi-stage research and design of
Chapter seventh clinical trials of
the first cohort study
second cases (Clinical Trial) research and evaluation clinical trials of
eighth chapter clinical efficacy of
the first section summarizes the
second clinical trial design
third commonly used clinical test method
Fourth drugs (The Studies and Evaluatio of Clinical
Therapies) research on common problems and treatment effect of
fifth
the first section provides an overview of
Second Clinical Study of the basic design contents of
third curative effect evaluation index
Fourth clinical studies of evaluation principles
ninth chapter disease outcomes research and evaluation (The Studies and Evaluatio of Clinical
Prognosis) to study prognostic factors of
third day prognosis
Fourth disease prognosis evaluation method of the first section overview of
second disease
evaluation standard and the principle of
tenth Determination and evaluation of chapter of health related quality of life (Assessment and Evaluation 0f
Health-related Quality of Life)
third day survival quality scale
Fourth scale development and evaluation of
eleventh chapter examples of etiology of
the first section provides an overview of
second common health related quality of life scale and its function (Etiological Study) analysis of
the first section provides an overview of
second steps and method of study on etiology of
third causal inference principle
twelfth chapter clinical decision-making (Clinical Decision Analysis) analysis of
the first section provides an overview of
second day clinical decision making evaluation index of
third decision tree model
Fourth Markov model
fifth sensitivity analysis of clinical economic evaluation of
thirteenth chapters (CHnical Economics Evaluation)
fourteenth chapter clinical study of
the first clinical economic evaluation of the basic concepts of
second day clinical economic evaluation of the basic steps of
third day clinical economic evaluation methods of
Fourth Clinical economic evaluation should be considered. The commonly used comprehensive evaluation method (Frequently Used synthetical Evaluation
Methods in Clinical Research) analysis of the typical error analysis of the clinical research on
in Chapter fifteenth of
Fourth TOPSIS
fifth rank sum ratio
section section
second
third levels (Discriminate the Typical Fualt in Clinical
Research)
the first clinical study design typical errors of
second clinical research data collection and pretreatment of typical errors of
third clinical research data statistical error analysis and control of common typical error analysis of
sixteenth chapter in clinical research (Control the COmmon Erro in Clinical
Research)
the first day the authenticity and reliability of
second selection bias
third section information bias
fourth and application evaluation of medical literature reading, confounding bias of
seventeenth chapter (Medical Literature Review, Appraisal and
Application) evaluation literature evaluation of
fourth medical
the first section provides an overview of
Second Medical Literature Reading
third medical literature examples
eighteenth chapter medical paper writing (Writing Articles for Medical Research) questionnaire writing
fifth medical thesis writing

third day schedule of writing medical paper
the first section provides an overview of
second section of writing
fourth medical English the 1 health status (SF-36) (First Edition)
Schedule 2 WHO WHOQOL-BREF (QOL-BREF) (Chinese Edition)
schedule 3 EORTC QLQ-C30 (third version) quality of life questionnaire

in English references the control
Chapter excerpt

"Clinical Epidemiology (Second Edition)" is one of the medical colleges and universities education textbooks.
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